Question: What are some new discoveries were made in the field of cancer treatment and what is their impact on this area? As a widely used innovation in the treatment of Oncology patients?
The number of changes that have occurred in this area over the last ten years is that they are too numerous to mention. However, major achievements were made in the field of stem cell therapy, immunotherapy, therapy with monoclonal antibodies and genetic screening. The result of the application of these technologies is to increase the period of survival after treatment in Europe.
Question : What to do for the patient with cancer?
First of all, the patient should attend high-quality diagnosis, which usually consists of a CT/MRI/ Ultrasound. More specific diagnosis is also desirable – optic or endoscopic. Of course, blood.
Next, the patient is transferred to the operation planning and procedures for tumor localization, which is based on the number of wireless technology or electromagnetic localization or with ultrasound. Many modern computer algorithms created to build an anatomical picture of each patient and determine the localization of cancerous tumors in this picture. Only then can you make the transition to the operating room or the interventional phase.
What is it? If from the point of view the operation, we all more or less clear, i.e., the operation is the excision of the tumor from human tissues, the intervention phase is a little different. This is a more gentle technique that uses special catheters delivered through the veins to the tumor and remove the tumor . It's very close to mini-invasive surgery that uses laparoscopy.
And, of course, biopsy, which allows to determine the stage and type of disease.
Question: What innovations have been achieved in surgical navigation and imaging to determine the tumor?
Key achievements in this area were made in the optical and non-optical technologies, and the biggest changes have occurred in the field definition of the degree of infestation of the tissues, to accurately identify the boundaries of the tumor. For example, combined optical tomography, which allows to obtain 2D and 3D images, full of information and features. That is why it is widely applied for diseases of the skin – carcinoma, and melanoma. In addition, this technology is widely used in screening and venous coronary blood. It's not all the most modern technologies. Laser confocal endomicroscopy Cellvizio becomes an important tool in identifying malignant pathologies, and soon will be applied in surgical interventions. Actively develops the direction of an optical biopsy, when the definition of the cellular composition of the tumor is possible without taking tissue samples.
There are many more new developments in the field of imaging tumors in multi-spectral screening, which allows you to determine healthy and diseased tissue, which is especially important , for example, in the treatment of tumors of the pancreas, ultraviolet screening, when the injection of fluorescent biomarkers and the use of infrared radiation allows to determine the exact location of the tumor.
Of course, quite clearly shows the tumor during surgery, however, the main task of the surgeon is not only to remove the tumor, and that there is not a single cancer cell, which can then lead to relapse.
With the help of these technologies of screening – coupled optical tomography, multi -spectral analysis and spectroscopy, the fundamental focus should be concentrated on excision of the tumor was complete, until the very last cancer cell.
To date, screening technologies during the operation itself had limitations. Very often, the surgeons in order to identify healthy or diseased tissue, should do the analysis directly in the course of the operation, cutting a piece of tissue and sending it to the lab. However, this method could not cover all the fabric in the limited time of operation. The only possible analysis were histology, which required several days to obtain results, and this meant that the patient is out of surgery and he needed a second operation.
Question : what is iKnife and how it works?
iKnife is a completely new technology that allows you to determine healthy and diseased tissue during surgery. The application of this technology showed a 100% positive result when tested.
Question: How personalized will be the surgery with the advent of these technologies?
I don't think you can talk about personalized surgery when it comes to new technologies. Most likely, the term personalized can be used in diagnosis, when using tests, you can better choose the type of treatment for the individual. There are many tests that can accurately determine the composition of a cancer cell or the structure of her DNA on the basis of these data pharmacists have created a required medication for the individual. This technique is already used for treatment in Italy, and soon it will become widespread.
Question: What is the future of technologies in the field of cancer treatment?
First of all should be paid attention to non-optical technologies. Here are a few examples.
iKnife is one of them. It is non-optical system, and spectroscopic. The other system is called the Margin Probe. She is also able to separate infected cells from healthy, but with the help of electromagnetic measurements. It is actively used in tumors of the breast and can reduce the risk of re-operation by 56%, which is very significant. Returning to the question, I can say that the main purpose of these technologies is to separate malignant tumor from healthy tissue, using all the advantages of diagnosis and surgery, reducing delays in treatment and avoiding the need for re-operation.