May 17, 2017
Kidney cancer – a rare cancer in adults.
Depending on the country of residence of the share this malignancy accounts for 1% to 2% of all diagnosed malignancies in adults.
Unfortunately, in children, the picture is different, malignant tumors of kidney in children account for between 20 and 25% of all malignant tumors.
The peak of disease falls on children under the age of 3 years.
Kidney tumors can be benign and malignant. Benign tumors are observed infrequently, e.g., fibroma, adenoma, etc.
In the vast majority of cases over time, benign tumors of this organ zlokacestvennoe.
If to speak about the most common of malignant tumors of this organ, adults is papillary cancer and gipernefroidnyi cancer.
EIT are both primary and secondary (metastases to kidney, other organs). Generally, secondary tumors occur very rarely.
If we talk about the age of the patients, about 75% of these people elderly.
By analyzing these statistics, you can highlight the increase in cases among men by 4% per year among women by 2% per year.
Thus, if this trend will not change in a few decades, this cancer can become quite common not only in children but also in adults.
Causes of kidney cancer
One of the main causes of kidney cancer is tobacco Smoking, it is followed by the exposure to carcinogenic substances in working in hazardous industries.
Thus, the rejection of bad habits is one of the most effective measures of prevention.
However, this disease can be prevented with a simple action, namely
- to give up Smoking.
- if you are working in hazardous industries regularly visit the urologist.
Unfortunately, especially men, do not like to visit to visit doctors, and refer to a urologist only when the disease has already reached late stages.
That is why, if you fall into a risk group or because of bad habits or unhealthy work, or because of age, I recommend every 1-1. 5 years to do ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space.
It's cheap, quick, but revealing study would catch the illness in the beginning.
Symptoms of kidney cancer
Primarily people are interested in what signs it is possible to identify the disease. Since men and women are susceptible to this disease, and the symptoms of kidney cancer occur in women as in men.
The main problem is that at the initial stage of any specific symptoms – are absent.
The grounds on which you can quite reliably assume this disease as women, and men, appear, as a rule, in 3-4 stages of the disease. This, of course, later, in terms of the effectiveness of further treatment.
Signs of kidney cancer include:
- tumor that can be felt from the back
- cancer cachexia
- pain syndrome
- prolonged increase of temperature.
Hematuria – the appearance of blood in the urine occurs in approximately 75-80% of cases and is one of the first signs of this cancer. However, it can occur quite suddenly. There were no signs of development of hematuria, went to the toilet and the urine – blood.
It is this rapidity in the development of hematuria leads to the fact that people in the least thinking about cancer, and withdraws blood for anything. For example, the stones that injure the mucosa of the bladder, etc.
To some extent this leads to the fact that not once are the specific studies, and they are deposited for a while to see what would happen next.
Often hematuria suddenly stops, the patient calms down and leaves, this symptom is ignored. And when the hematuria comes back some patients think that again it goes all pass.
Often the urine is allocated with blood clots. An extreme version of the development of hematuria is when the blood clots completely block the urethra and the urine becomes impossible.
In tumors of kidney hematuria depends on germination of the tumor into the renal pelvis and therefore is not an early sign.
Although hematuria and frequent, but it also manifests only in later stages of the cancer pathology.
Palpable tumors on the back
The next symptom is the presence of a tumor that can be felt. It is not surprising, but it is the same frequency characteristic as and hematuria.
Some patients are either lost, either by themselves thin, you can see the tumor when viewed with the naked eye. It will protrude from the kidneys.
When probing the tumor can be bumpy to the touch and elastic. It can either be slightly moved or not moved.
The syndrome also tells about the late stages of cancer.
Another sign of this disease in men is varicocele. Varicocele is dilatation of the spermatic cord.
Approximately every fifth patient has a fever. It is usually minor, but long. Can last many weeks. The increase in temperature of over 38 degrees is a rare phenomenon. Often, temperature is the only symptom of kidney cancer.
Approximately 30-35% of cases, a symptom of the disease is hypertension, which is due on the one hand endocrine disorders, on the other hand, the hardening of the renal vessels on the background of tumor growth.
In the last stages of cancer cachexia is marked, in more detail, see the link.
Pain syndrome increases with time, becomes constant and increases.
When you need to go to be examined
Unfortunately, the symptoms of such TESTING are not specific, therefore the manifestation of two or more symptoms, indicating this disease, you should immediately conduct an appropriate study, at least ultrasound.
Often, even this study is enough to understand what is the reason for such symptoms. It is the most affordable way to determine kidney cancer at an early stage.
Kidney cancer – a disease that can be successfully treated, like other diseases, only in the initial stages. Starting from stage 3 treatment and heavy, and expensive and not always effective.
Now there are products that are revolutionary in treating, including, and kidney cancer. For example, a few months ago went on sale Tatlisumak (Acentric).
However, I want to say that chemotherapy for the treatment of this ailment is ineffective, so the main treatment remains operational. It is the primary at the initial stages of the disease and for many years remained the only treatment option.
However, with the development of pharmaceutical research entered the market a new generation of drugs for the treatment of such cancer – targeted drugs.
Now active targeted drugs few, and their appearance on the market of the results of treatment of patients began to improve. About them we will speak more in the following article.
The only thing that complicates the mass use of these drugs is their price. At the time of writing Acentric with delivery in Moscow costs 6 $ 500 for one bottle.
The cost of other targeted agents is somewhat smaller when calculated on month, but still high. Aside from the fact that prices tend to decrease, as in our country start the production of domestic targeted drugs.
For example, the drug with the active substance is bevacizumab, which a few years ago called "Avastin" is worth from 60 to 80 000 rubles per bottle (400 mg), now you can buy Russian production called "Bevacizumab" 9-12, 000.
I believe that other targeted drugs will be more affordable, and in many patients the results of treatment of renal cell carcinoma close to the results of medical treatment abroad, because of the mass availability of good targeted drugs.
Classification of tumours
Like other malignant neoplasms of this TESTING is classified according to the system ТNM.
Where T is the size of the primary tumor,
N – regional lymph nodes,
M – presence of distant metastases.
Learn more about the TNM system and histological classification of tumors of this organ, read our article at the link.